This groundbreaking volume brings together eminent researchers and clinicians to present current, original theory and data on the nature of disorganized attachment, its etiology, and its sequelae. (1997). Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. Main found that infants who were securely attached to their mothers engaged in more exploration and interactive play. To see what your friends thought of this book, Readers' Most Anticipated Books of January. describing themselves as killing a person with a thought). Through her observational work, Mary Ainsworth discovered three primary attachment styles that may affect children. She is the developer of the Adult attachment interview. Main, M., Hesse, E., & Kaplan, N. (2005). ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. (1988). Type C attachments were insecure and resistant. This work has been described as 'revolutionary'[1] and Main has been described as having 'unprecedented resonance and influence' in the field of psychology.[2]. (1999). The work was completed by her student Mary Main, and Main’s research led to shocking conclusions. Mary Main has more than 40 published journal articles and book chapters and has over 25,000 google scholar citations (as of January 2015). [22] This point has been little recognised. Type B attachments were those that were secure. Schuengel, C., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (1999). ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. Associations among attachment classifications of mothers, fathers and their infants, Child Development, 67, 541-555. Mary Sykes Wylie and Lynn Turner When attachment theory was blossoming, it didn’t provide an accompanying toolbox of tactics and techniques, though it did offer a new therapeutic attitude, justifying deep, soul-felt work, which offered a genuinely new beginning … Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkeley. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds. In M. Yogman & T. B. Brazelton (Eds. The caregiving system: A behavioral systems approach to parenting. [49] AAI transcripts involving definitive examples of such lapses are classified 'unresolved/disorganized'. Security in infancy, childhood and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Michael Rutter, a prominent commentator on attachment research, has described the discovery of the disorganized/disoriented attachment classification as one of the five great advances to the field of psychology contributed by research in attachment.[10]. [35], Interventions aimed at reducing disorganization have been developed, for example, the Circle of Security Intervention and the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) intervention. [17] Behaviors associated with disorganization have been found to undergo transformation from the age of 2 and typically develop into various forms of well-organised controlling behavior toward the parent. Mary Main was among the first doctoral students of Mary Ainsworth's at The Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, exploring the relationship between attachment and infant play in her doctoral research. Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity or the Adult Attachment Interview, Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 387-403. ), Handbook of dissociation: Theoretical, empirical and clinical perspectives (pp. by The Guilford Press. [19], Main conceptualised disorganization/disorientation as representing some form of contradiction or disruption of the attachment system: either a conflict between simultaneous dispositions to physically approach and to flee the caregiver, or seeming disorientation to the environment. Available at: Main, M. (2000). The origins of reciprocity. The book also examines advances in the biology and neuroscience of attachment. Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. Contributors report on the social, psychological, and biological contributions to disorganization. Following completion of her dissertation, Main took up a faculty position in the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. To illustrate the difference, Main has described how an individual who has no living family and no current romantic partner – so a person without a secure attachment in the present to any living persons – could be found to have a secure-autonomous state of mind with respect to attachment.[41]. Main has also emphasised that attachment states of mind should not be viewed as fixed and unalterable: "these… categorical placements… must be understood to reference only current, and potentially changeable, states of mind with respect to attachment. Although "possessed of perfect powers to swim away" from him, it returned each time to the point on which he stood. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In a letter to Behavioral and Brain Science, 1977, the ground in evolutionary theory upon which Main's later ideas emerged is already clear. The significance of insecure attachment and disorganization in the development of children's externalizing behavior: A meta-analytic study, Child Development, 81(2), 435–456. New York: Guilford Press. There are no discussion topics on this book yet. New York: Guilford Press. Coming to Los Angeles: Dr. Dan Siegel with Drs. Their parents’ behaviour is unpredictable, so no organized strategy allows them to feel safe and Rutter, M., Kreppner, J., & Sonuga-Barke, E. (2009). 2. From its origins in the 1950s with the work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Attachment Theory has expanded over the ensuing half century to become a central psychobiological paradigm in developmental and clinical psychology. Manassis, K., Bradley, S., Goldberg, S., Hood, J., & Swinson, R. P. (1994). Together with Erik Hesse, in 1990 Main proposed that disorganized attachment behavior can be explained by a contradiction between the attachment system and another behavioral tendency. ), Growing points of attachment theory and research. She has since remained at Berkeley, though she has also held visiting scholar positions at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Bielefeld (Germany) and the University of Leiden (Netherlands). [46] An individual who describes extremely negative childhood attachment experiences could be classified as having a secure-autonomous state of mind if they describe these experiences in a coherent and apparently objective way. Earned secure attachment: According to Mary Main, (1995) the primary characteristics of “earned secure attachment” are metacognitional and integrative thinking. Main, M., Hesse, E., & Hesse, S. (2011). 31–68). (2006). Attachment security and disorganization in maltreating and high risk families: A series of meta-analyses, Development and Psychopathology, 22, 87–108. New York: Wiley-Interscience. We’d love your help. As Lyons-Ruth et al. Enhancing attachment organization among maltreated children: Results of a randomized clinical trial, Child Development, 83(2), 623-636. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. In common with the approach to classifying infant disorganized attachment, adults classified as unresolved are also assigned a best-fitting alternative classification. 49-76). Mary Main: Mental Representations, Metacognition, and the Adult Attachment Interview 4. Attachment theory and research: Overview with suggested applications to child custody, Family Court Review, 49(3), 426–463. The Multiple Dimensions of the Self 6. The emergence of the disorganized/disoriented (D) attachment classification, 1979-1982, History of Psychology 18(1): 32–46. Mary Ainsworth's research work on attachment helps us to understand the child development better. Bernier, A., & Meins, E. (2008). "[58] She has highlighted that a variety of favourable and unfavourable experiences may alter a child's developmental pathway and hence their state of mind with respect to attachment. Hazen, N., Sydnye, D.A., Christopher, C., Umemura, T., & Jacobvitz, D. (2015). Family Court Review, 49, 426-463. [23] The researchers note that this inattention to mechanisms may be masking important differences and potentially limiting the precision of clinical and welfare interventions. Disorganized infant, child, and adult attachment: Collapse in Behavioral and attentional strategies, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1097-1127. Disorganization and disorientation in infant strange situation behavior: Phenotypic resemblance to dissociative states? (2008). Infants were aged between 12 and 18 months. [45] Main has explained that "while the content of an individual's life history cannot change, it can be told or reconstructed in many differing ways". Shaver (Eds. Attachment in mothers with anxiety disorders and their children, Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1106 –1113. [34] An additional issue for attempts at home screening of disorganized attachment is Main's finding that some infants classified as insecure-avoidant in the strange situation may show disorganized-type behaviors at home. Selected publications are below: [40] Interviews categorised as secure-autonomous are characterised by their coherent and collaborative nature. Some children are overly solicitous and protective toward the parent (classified by Main and Cassidy as controlling-caregiving) while others are harshly directive or rudely humiliating toward the parent (classified controlling-punitive). The system has three components in early childhood: the monitoring and maintaining of proximity to an attachment figure or figures, flight to these individuals as a haven of safety in times of alarm, and use of these individuals as a secure base for exploration. As such, infants coded as disorganized/disoriented are also given a secondary A, B or C classification. Mary Main’s research is very clear on this. have recently observed, with concern, "to date, few hypotheses have been advanced regarding the mechanisms underlying this striking difference among infants who display disorganized behavior". van IJzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. Attachment Relationships and the Development of the Self 5. George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1984). Main, M., & Weston, D. (1981). Today, the technique of Ainsworth's Strange Situation is commonly used in psychiatry and psychology to examine the attachment pattern between mother and a child. It developed initially from attachment theory as developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, and … Longitudinal findings are presented on developmental outcomes in middle childhood; special populations are examined, including children with disabilities; and new assessment methodologies are described. It is especially focused on the effects of relationships between children and parents and between reproductive couples. Main, M., & Cassidy, J. ), Adult attachment scoring and classification system. The Dynamic Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation is a transdisciplinary model describing the effect attachment relationships can have on human development and functioning. http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/attachment/pdf/Mary_Main_honorary_degree.pdf, Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary_Main&oldid=988433437, University of California, Berkeley College of Letters and Science faculty, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (1999). Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Berkeley. The results led her to 3 major attachment styles. Whilst it might seem odd or maladaptive at first sight for a child to turn away from their caregiver when anxious, Main argued from an evolutionary perspective that avoidance could be regarded as a strategy to achieve the protective proximity enjoined by the attachment system - but which responds to the context of a caregiver who would rebuff them and be less available if the infant made a direct appeal for contact and comfort.[6]. In 1986, researchers Main and Solomon added a fourth attachment style. Hesse, E. (1996) Discourse, memory, and the Adult Attachment Interview: A note with emphasis on the emerging Cannot Classify category, Infant Mental Health Journal, 17(1), 4-11; Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2002). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Some findings and some directions for future research. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. in divorce proceedings)[32] have also been found to predict infant disorganized attachment behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill. "[27] Main and Hesse do not assume that fear in relation to the caregiver is always the proximate cause of disorganized/disoriented attachment behavior. "[25] A parent who frightens the child with abusive behavior, or who themselves is frightened when the child seeks comfort because of past trauma, could be supposed to cause such a paradox for an infant. In its novelty and its separations, the Strange Situation confronted the infant with two natural cues for danger, and allowed observers to see the articulation and balance between the infant's capacities to explore, affiliate with the stranger, and seek and find comfort from their caregiver. ), Attachment in the preschool years: Theory, research and intervention (pp. Main, like Bowlby before her, has stressed that attachment "security is in no way fixed or fully determined in infancy. The sam… Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of, Published Main, M., & Solomon, J. Infant behaviors coded as disorganized/disoriented include sequential display of contradictory behavior patterns (Index I); simultaneous display of contradictory behavior patterns (II); undirected, misdirected, incomplete, and interrupted movements and expressions (III); stereotypies, asymmetrical movements, mistimed movements, and anomalous postures (IV); freezing, stilling, and slowed movements and expressions (V); direct indices of apprehension regarding the parent (VI); direct indices of disorganization or disorientation (VII). Unresolved/disorganized/disoriented state of mind with respect to experiences of loss. In M.T. Important aspects of Main's early work also included microanalysis of infant-mother interaction using descriptive language rather than count data,[4] replicating her teacher Mary Ainsworth's Strange Situation on a different sample,[5] and work on the scale for avoidant infant behavior. [36] The ABC intervention aims to enhance caregiving sensitivity and decrease frightening behavior. [39] An illustrative copy of the Adult Attachment Interview Protocol is available. Implications of attachment theory for developmental psychopathology, Development and Psychopathology, 11, 1–13. George, S., & Solomon, J. The Adult Attachment Interview: Protocol, method of analysis, and empirical studies. Attachment disorganization: Genetic factors, parenting contexts, and developmental transformation from infancy to adulthood. For example, unresolved loss,[28] parental experiences of helplessness,[29] a parent's ongoing experience of an anxiety disorder,[30] multiple forms of social and economic disadvantage[31] and major separation in the absence of maltreatment (e.g. Grossmann, K. Grossmann & E. Waters (Eds. The organized categories of infant, child, and adult attachment: Flexible vs. inflexible attention under attachment-related stress, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1055-1096, p.1093. Type A attachments were those that caused the child to be insecure and avoidant. Hoffman, K., Marvin, R., Cooper, G., & Powell, B. Available at: University of Haifa (2011). ), Adult attachment scoring and classification system. Adult Attachment Interview protocol. (2004). The ultimate causation of some infant attachment phenomena. 107–138). John Bowlby originally proposed the concept of the 'attachment behavioral system', an orientation and set of dispositions which evolved because it provided protection from predation and other risks to survival. The Disorganized Attachment framework also emphasizes the significance of the relational aspect of attachment, particularly during the first year of life. [50], A 'Cannot Classify' category has also been delineated by Hesse and Main which is used to describe interviews in which no single predominant attachment state of mind can be identified. Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae, Development and Psychopathology, 11(2), 225–249; Fearon, R. P., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., van IJzendoorn, M. H., Lapsley, A., & Roisman, G. I. The book also examines advances in the biology and neuroscience of attachment. Interviews categorised as preoccupied are characterised by angry, vague, confused, or fearful fixation on particular attachment relationships or experiences. In M. T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E. M. Cummings (Eds. van IJzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. Unresolved/disorganized adult responses have been found associated with disorganized infant behavior towards the speaker. Mary Main, Erik Hesse, and Siegfried Hesse* The term “attachment” is now in common usage and, as the readers of this Special Issue are aware, is referenced in a rapidly increasing variety of contexts involving child custody (McIntosh & Chisholm, 2008).The aim of this article is to provide judges, Unlike the Strange Situation which assesses an infant's attachment security to a particular person, the Adult Attachment Interview does not assess attachment security with respect to any specific past or current relationship, but instead an individual's overall state of mind with respect to attachment. 121-160). Hesse, E. (2008). Mary Main's introduction of the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) has provided the field with an empirical tool for examining the concordance of parental and infant attachment patterns. Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. Since 1986, when disorganized attachment was first defined by Mary Main and Judith Solomon, a great deal of interest has been shown in this addition to the standard Ainsworth classification system. Hesse, E., & Main, M. (2006). In inquiring about the proximate cause of behavior, an attachment researcher may ask "What made him show attachment behavior toward it at this particular moment?" [42] Secure-autonomous adult responses were associated with secure infant behavior towards the speaker, dismissing responses with insecure-avoidant infant behavior towards the speaker and preoccupied responses with insecure-ambivalent infant behavior towards the speaker. "Cannot Classify". Frightened, threatening, and dissociative parental behavior in low-risk samples: Description, discussion, and interpretations. During her year with Karin and Klaus Grossmann at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in 1977, Main interacted with various biologists, evolutionary theorists and ethologists, including Richard Dawkins and Robert Hinde, who influenced her thinking. University of Gothenburg (2007). The quality of the toddler's relationship to mother and to father: Related to conflict behavior and the readiness to establish new relationships. Behavioral and Brain Science, 2: 640-643, p.642. Emmanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment insecurity, disinhibited attachment, and attachment disorders: Where do the research findings leave the concepts? Behavioral and Brain Science, 2: 640-643. The Disorganized Attachment-Caregiving System. She is internationally recognized for her pioneering research in attachment and caregiving, including (with Mary Main) the discovery and delineation of the disorganized attachment classification group and the first longitudinal study of infants in separated and divorced families. New this month: Scandal rocks an elite British boarding school in The Divines. Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? The Varieties of Attachment Experience 7. Mary Main is a professor at the University of California at Berkeley. van IJzendoorn, M. (1995). Lyons-Ruth, K., Bureau, J.-F., Easterbrooks, M., Obsuth, I., Hennighausen, K., & Vulliez-Coady, L. (2013). Research examining the effectiveness of the intervention found significant changes from disorganized classifications pre-intervention to organised classifications immediately post-intervention. ), Affective development in infancy (pp. (1990). Introduction In L. Michelson & W. Ray (Eds. The ultimate causation of some infant attachment phenomena: Further answers, further phenomena, and further questions. Discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Goodman compares and contrasts the two theories, and adds similar research comparing the two from several other researchers’ perspectives. Thoroughly accessible yet academically rigorous, and written by a leading figure in the field, John Bowlby and Attachment Theory is still the perfect introduction to attachment for students of psychology, psychiatry, counselling, social work and nursing. Main discovered so many babies were peculiar, she got concerned about the parents. 161–182). Whereas infants classified as secure would seek their caregiver on reunion, show their distress, and receive comfort, 'avoidance' was a measure of the extent to which an infant kept their attention away from their caregiver and avoided showing their distress. Fonagy and Forward II. Individual differences in infant responses to the situation were found and three patterns were identified: secure, insecure-avoidant, and insecure-ambivalent.[3]. A Professor at the University of California Berkeley, Main is particularly known for her introduction of the 'disorganized' infant attachment classification and for development of the Adult Attachment Interview and coding system for assessing states of mind regarding attachment. In M.T. In his new book, Attachment in Psychotherapy, David Wallin provides a clear and comprehensive review of the body of attachment theory and research including the work of John Bowlby, Mary Ainsworth, Mary Main, and Peter Fonagy. [51], Main and colleagues have developed a scoring and classification system for assessing AAI transcripts. The book also examines advances in the biology and neuroscience of attachment. Disorganized Attachment and Caregiving eBook: Solomon, Judith, George, Carol: Amazon.com.au: Kindle Store [26], The image of parental frightening behavior as a causal pathway to disorganized infant attachment has captured the imagination of clinicians and social workers, and has sometimes led to the misuse of the concept of disorganized/disoriented attachment in screening for maltreatment. In this text, she draws from Tinbergen the important distinction between 'proximal' and 'ultimate' causation, noting that immense confusion about attachment arises when these levels of analysis are mistaken for one another. [14] For example, this classification in infancy has been found associated with school-age externalising problem behavior,[15] indices of dissociation in adolescence[16] and development of post-traumatic stress symptoms following trauma exposure. (1986). Attachment at early school age and developmental risk: Examining family contexts and behavior problems of controlling-caregiving, controlling-punitive, and behaviorally disorganized children, Developmental Psychology, 40(4), 519. van IJzendoorn, M. H., Schuengel, C., & Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J. It is important to note that prediction of different patterns of infant attachment security from the AAI is not based upon the actual attachment history of the parent, but on the way in which the parent recounts that history. ), The effects of the infant on its caregiver (pp. Duschinsky, R. (2015). Be the first to ask a question about Attachment Disorganization. Very extensive nonmaternal care predicts mother–infant attachment disorganization, Development & Psychopathology, 27(3): 649-661, Main, M., Hesse, E., & Hesse, S. (2011). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Mary Main (born 1943) is an American psychologist notable for her work in the field of attachment. Shaver (Eds. Main, M., & Solomon, J. Disorganised Attachment • Later added – Mary Main 1974 “Fear without Solution” “A disorganized attachment results when there is no organized strategy that works for the child. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti & E.M. Cummings (Eds.) Ainsworth Identified Three Primary Attachment Styles. Disorganized attachment in early childhood: Meta-analysis of precursors, concomitants, and sequelae, Development and Psychopathology, 11(2), 225–249. The Adult Attachment Interview. (1981). This is an "ultimate" account made sheerly at the level of mechanism, and it is essentially identical to Bowlby's. Honorary doctorate for Mary Main. Main, M. (1991). Predictability of attachment behavior and representational processes at 1, 6, and 18 years of age: The Berkeley Longitudinal Study. Thoroughly accessible yet academically rigorous, and written by a leading figure in the field, John Bowlby and Attachment Theory is still the perfect introduction to attachment for students of psychology, psychiatry, counselling, social work and nursing. The organized categories of infant, child, and adult attachment: Flexible vs. inflexible attention under attachment-related stress, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 48(4), 1055-1096. van IJzendoorn, M. (1995) Adult attachment representations, parental responsiveness, and infant attachment: A meta-analysis on the predictive validity or the Adult Attachment Interview, Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 387-403. (1999). For example, secure-autonomous parents have been found to be more responsive to their infants than parents with a dismissing or preoccupied attachment state of mind. 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