4 as a chariot victory in the 82nd Olympiad (452 b.c. B. C. Olympian 2 B. C. Olympian 6 Pindar and Homer, Athlete and Hero 8. View more property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow. Olympian 5 was composed in honor of the victory by Psaumis of Kamarina in a mule-cart race at Olympia in 448 BCE. A heading in the Ambrosian MS (1.138.21 Dr.) states, “this poem was not among the texts, but in the commentaries of Didymus [1st cent. subject headings: Kamarina; Olympia; spatio-temporal ‘hinge’; deixis ‘referential pointing’; gnomic statement/sentiment. For Hagesidamus of Western Locri D. E. Gerber, A Bibliography of Pindar, 1513–1966 (Cleveland 1969); Pindar and Bacchylides 1934–1987, in Lustrum 31 (1989) 97–269 and Lustrum 32 (1990) 7– 67; Emendations in Pindar 1513–1972 (Amsterdam 1976). At least one athlete from the city, Psaumis, was victorious at the Olympics, a feat celebrated in Pindar’s fourth and fifth Olympian odes. Kamarina was abandoned at that point and its citizens deported to Syracuse, where Gelon, a successor of Hippokrates and the first tyrant in the Deinomenidai lineage, moved the seat of government. sister projects: Wikipedia article, Commons category, Wikidata item. 466 ?460 or (3): Cross-references in text-specific dictionaries to this page Next. My comments focus on those descriptions, and I analyze them from the standpoint of a subfield of linguistics, pragmatics, as I proceed to examine the spatial orientations and shifts effected through verbal signs and cues. Click anywhere in the Long Foot Race Pindar (/ ˈ p ɪ n d ər /; Greek: Πίνδαρος Pindaros, ; Latin: Pindarus; c. 518 – 438 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.Of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, his work is the best preserved. 464 476 The Authoritative Speech of Prose, Poetry, and Song: Pindar and Herodotus I 9. Odes. Although all we know of Psaumis of Kamarina comes from the mentions of his name in two Olympian odes (Olympian 4 and 5), it is clear that he was a wealthy citizen who helped rebuild the city in the process of the latest resettlement. Dekhesthai ‘to receive, to welcome’ is virtually a technical term in epinicians. Diagoras of Rhodes was probably the most famous boxer in antiquity. O.5.1–8 In the opening of the first triad, the city’s eponymous nymph Kamarina, the daughter of Ōkeanos, is asked to accept a ‘sweet choice reward’ (ἄωτον γλυκύν), Ο.5.1,  in exchange for ‘athletic struggles of the highest order’ (ὑψηλᾶν ἀρετᾶν), Ο.5.1, and for the ‘garlands’ [stephanoi] won in Olympia. The first-person epinician speaker, interjects here with a self-reference for the first (and only) time in the song, announcing his arrival: ‘I come as your suppliant’ (ἱκέτας σέθεν ἔρχομαι), O.5.20. Olympian 5 is one of the few Pindaric odes that lack a mythical narrative. Pindar’s Olympian 1 and the Aetiology of the Olympic Games 5. The final triad opens with an invocation to the third deity of the ode, Zeus Soter. Chapter 11 Status Conferences for May 5, 2020. Basil L. Gildersleeve, Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes, 5; Basil L. Gildersleeve, Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes, 8; Cross-references to this page (6): Raphael Kühner, Bernhard Gerth, Ausführliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache, KG 1.pos=2.2; Basil L. Gildersleeve, Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes, Pindar's thought 354. In another epinician (Pythian 1), for example, Apollo is localized first in Lycia, then in Delos, and finally in Parnassos, the site of victory. Epic, Praise, and the Possession of Poetry 7. Download Pleiades ancient places geospacial dataset for this text. Commentary references to this page Their statues stood in Olympia (Paus. The following lines make it clear that the invocation is still made from the deictic origo in Kamarina, confirming that the general geographical ubiquity of Greek gods can be assumed whenever they are entreated, even if one location—Olympia, in this case—is more foregrounded than others. The achievement of Psaumis and the reward he carried off are conceived as the ‘gifts’ (δῶρα), Ο.5.3,  to be welcomed by Kamarina through the medium of the present song. O.5.9–16 The subject of the verb ‘joins together’ (κολλᾷ) is ambiguous. Hardcover. B. C. Olympian 14 Commentarie… The Ordeal of the Athlete and the Burden of the Poet 6. ? The Ordeal of the Athlete and the Burden of the Poet 6. It implies arrival and reception of a kōmos ‘revel, reveling, band of revelers’, which Pindar uses to describe what, in reality, would have been a khoros, a performing group of non-professional singers/dancers, who would have been carefully trained and choreographed for the occasion of the epinician performance. This triad starts off with an invocation as well, this time to the ‘city-protecting Pallas’ (πολιάοχε Παλλάς), O.5.10, of whose holy precinct Psaumis himself is imagined as singing upon his victorious return. These thumbnail sketches of the two regions are not all grouped in discrete sections; in fact, they are so thoroughly interwoven in the fabric of the ode that the listener’s attention is continuously directed from one to the other, from the imagined to the visible, from the physical sight to the mind’s eye. For Hagesidamus of Western Locri Although the proper names of Kamarina and Olympia occur only once in Olympian 5, many paraphrases for both locations metonymically direct our attention to one place or the other. Moreover, even though the act of proclaiming [kērussein] is attributed to the victor’s own voice and persona, it is ultimately the present performance of Pindar’s composition that assumes that role, taking shape, as it does, in the very act of being described. 5 Olympic Ave , Buffalo, NY 14215-3213 is currently not for sale. 2017.11.10 | By Maša Ćulumović Olympian 5 is one of the few Pindaric odes that lack a mythical narrative. 456 The three successive invocations take the audience progressively from a distinctly local context (Lake Kamarina) via a Panhellenic deity with a local cult (Pallas Athena) to the broadly Panhellenic perspective represented in the principal god honored at the Panhellenic Olympic competitions and festivities (Zeus, here in his manifestation as ‘Savior’ [Sotēr]). Olympian 11 For Hagesias of Syracuse 02:00 PM The estimated value of this home is currently priced at 79,443, approximately $58.85 per square foot. Boys' Boxing Most of the odes were composed in honour of men or youths who achieved a victory at those festivals. subject headings: pragmatic polysemy; apostrophe; deixis ‘referential pointing’; distal deixis; proximal deixis. The focus, instead, is on the victor himself and on his role in the resettlement of his hometown of Kamarina. 5 Although they contain much fanciful material and numerous 5 A brief life preserved on a papyrus dating from about 200 a.d. (P. Oxy. line to jump to another position: Olympian 1 B. C. Olympian 7 subject headings: epichoric; Panhellenic. They raise two separate problems: first, the nature and date of the victories they celebrate; second, the authorship of Olympian 5. In the song, Olympia is evoked in the image of ‘the six double altars at the greatest religious festival |6 with the sacrifices of oxen in the five days of athletic competitions’ (βωμοὺς ἓξ διδύμους ἐγέραρεν ἑορταῖς θεῶν μεγίσταις |6 ὑπὸ βουθυσίαις ἀέθλων τε πεμπαμέροις ἁμιλλαις), O.5.5–6, in the cultic references (without explicit narrative) to the heroes Pelops and Oinomaos, O.5.9, and in the landscape features that include the hill of Kronos, the river Alpheos, and an Idaian Cave. At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, Kamarina did side with Athens, although a strong pro-Spartan faction remained in the city. He is explicitly localized in Olympia, inhabiting the hill of Kronos and honoring the wide-flowing Alpheos and the sacred cave of Ida. The city was rebuilt once more by Gela after the fall of the dynasty of the Deinomenidai (Hieron and Thrasyboulos, after Gelon) in 461–460 BCE. The deictic emphasis on ‘this community of townsmen’ (τόνδε δᾶμον ἀστῶν), O.5.14, who benefit from the city’s reconstruction, is echoed in the closing words of the triad about the respect accorded to a successful individual by his ‘fellow citizens’ (πολίταις), O.5.16. For Xenophon of Corinth In a reciprocal gesture, Pindar’s poetic persona is also presented as ‘arriving’ (ἔρχομαι), O.5.3, to the location of the festivities that include the very performance of the song. The ode refers also to other benefactions credited to the victor, especially the glory of two Olympic victories that made his homeland famous. ; sister projects: Wikidata item. Foot Race and Pentathlon O.5.8 Mule Car Race For Epharmostus of Opus The gayest charm of beauty has a root in the constitution of things. Amazon Business: For business-only pricing, quantity discounts and FREE Shipping. (16): Cross-references in notes to this page The Ordeal of the Athlete and the Burden of the Poet 6. However, the origo or the deictic center in the act of song’s utterance remains fixed in the homeland of Psaumis, as indicated by the verbs of motion dehkesthai ‘to receive’ (δέκευ), O.5.3, and hikanein ‘to come’ (ἵκων), O.5.9, anchored as they are in Kamarina, to which the victor is envisaged as returning and whose community is encouraged by the poet to welcome him with due celebration. 488 The Authoritative Speech of Prose, Poetry, and Song: Pindar and Herodotus I 9. The scholia give the occasion of Ol. Let us know what you think. For Theron of Acragas These two odes, Olympian 4 and Olympian 5, are the only Pindaric compositions commissioned by a patron from Kamarina, a Greek city located on the south shore of Sicily between Akragas and Gela in the west and Syracuse in the east. This Single Family Residence is located at 5 Olympic Ave, Buffalo, NY. See the comment at O.5.4. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. J. Irigoin, Histoire du texte de Pindare (Paris 1952). 476 The Authoritative Speech of Prose, Poetry, and Song: Pindar and Herodotus I 9. O.5.23–24 P. Hummel, La syntaxe de Pindare (Louvain 1993). For Psaumis of Camarina Diagoras descended from Damagetus, king of Lalysus and, on his mother's side, from Messenian hero and king, Aristomenes.Diagoras was victor in boxing twice in the Olympic games, four times in the Isthmian, twice in the Nemean, and once at least in the Pythian Games.The fame of Diagoras and his descendants was celebrated by Pindar (Olympian Odes VII). Pindar's Olympian II.ii. The primary classical authority here for his narrative considered in extenso is Hesiod's account of the titanomachy in the Theogony.9 But for Milton's purposes, Horace's brief scenes of line to jump to another position: The Annenberg CPB/Project provided support for entering this text. 1990. All we know of the victor comes from this and one other victory ode—Olympian 4—composed for an earlier victory in a chariot race. Boys' Wrestling Extended descriptions of Kamarina and of the victor’s latest victory in Olympia are especially striking. The song itself is understood to be a recompense for, and therefore on par with, ‘athlete’s struggles and athletic prowess’ [aretē]. For Asopichus of Orchomenus B. C. Olympian 4 Boxing-Match For Diagoras of Rhodes The ode refers also to other benefactions credited to the victor, especially the glory of two Olympic victories that made his homeland famous. Pindar’s Olympian 1 and the Aetiology of the Olympic Games 5. The two variants need not be mutually exclusive (if, indeed, there was a cave of Ida in Olympia, which has so far not been identified). Kamarina, on the other hand, is pointed to in the invocation of its eponymous nymph and her ‘people-nourishing city’ (πόλιν λαοτρόφον) at O.5.4, the ‘newly-founded home’ (νέοικον ἕδραν) at O.5.8, and the landmarks such as the precinct of Athena, Lake Kamarina, and the rivers Oanos and Hipparis, O.5.10–14. In either case, the reference is an effective way of combining the local landscape features with their function in the life of the city and (explicitly or implicitly) with the involvement of Psaumis himself within the city. The 1,230 sq. In this case, it is precisely eulogia ‘praise [received from song]’ that distinguishes the wealth that is transcendent [olbos] and of higher order than the mere ‘material possesions’ [kteatessi]. subject headings: Kamarina; Deinomenidai. ), confirmed by the entry in P. Oxy. Pindar Olympian 7. Remarkably, the apostrophe to the Olympic victor [Olumpionīkos], at O.5.21, notionally links the two locations: on the semantic level, it looks back to the place of victory, but on the level of ‘referential pointing’ (deixis), it addresses the victor in the ‘here and now’ (hic et nunc) of Kamarina, as evidenced by the reference to it, at O.5.20, as ‘this city’ [polis hēde]. The polysemy, that is, the plurality of potential references inherent in the first-person epinician speaker is crucial for proper understanding the full range of the first person (both singular and plural) choral statements. 468 The metre of Olympian II is still a matter of some difficulty. The exhortation to Kamarina to receive the gifts of Psaumis in the present is followed by a description of his past activities in Olympia, with the relative pronoun hos ‘who’ (referring to Psaumis) functioning as a ‘hinge’ that enables the spatio-temporal shift. Herodorus of Heraclea (c. 400 BC) also has Heracles founding a shrine at Olympia, with six pairs of gods, each pair sharing a single altar. What little we know about Pindar comes from the poems themselves and from five brief accounts of his life. The ‘luxuriant glory of victory’ [kūdos habron] was, therefore, conferred not only on Psaumis, his family, and ancestors, embodied collectively in the mention of his father Akron, but it was also bestowed upon his hometown of Kamarina. The epithet ‘newly-built’ (νέοικον ἕδραν) most likely refers to the resettlement of Kamarina in 461–460 BCE, in which Psaumis took part. Pindar’s Olympian 1 and the Aetiology of the Olympic Games 5. Pindar Olympian 5. (The â ¦ 452 95â 6 Source: The Further Academic Papers of Sir Hugh Lloyd-Jones Author(s): Hugh Lloyd-Jones Publisher: Oxford University Press T he lyric poet Pindar has composed four groups of epinician (triumphal) hymns, addressed or referring to the winners of the four major Pan-Hellenic contests. Recognition that the epinician “ego-statements” often elide distinct moments from the time of the song’s composition to its live performance, leading to a frequent conflation of the choral “we, the performers” with the composer’s “I, the poet” and even with the audience’s “we, the local community,” helps to avoid the vexed attempts to assign a uniform referent to Pindaric ego across the epinician corpus as a whole. Single Horse Race In Pindar’s wording, Psaumis ‘dedicated’ (ἀνέθηκε), O.5.8, the glory of his victory [kūdos] to Kamarina, addressed as ‘you’ (τίν) at O.5.7, in a continuation of the opening apostrophe. Click anywhere in the Wrestling-Match Commissioning a Pindaric epinician was intended not only to celebrate his Olympic victories but also broadcast his status and aspirations in the new community. subject headings: Kamarina; Olympia; metonymy; apostrophe; deixis ‘referential pointing’; hic et nunc ‘here and now’; origo ‘deictic center/anchorage’; eponymous nymph. 464, when Xenophon won both the Stadion, or short foot-race of about a furlong or 220 yards, and also the Pentathlon, that is, probably, he won at least three out of the five contests which composed the Pentathlon—the Jump, the Foot-race, Throwing the Disk, Throwing the Javelin, and Wrestling, (ἅλμα ποδωκέιαν δίσκον ἄκοντα πάλην). Overall, in the course of the song, the listener’s attention is guided from Olympia to Kamarina and back in no fewer than seven distinct spatial shifts: from Olympia to Kamarina at O.5.1, O.5.8, O.5.10, O.5.20, O.5.21 and from Kamarina to Olympia at O.5.5, O.5.17, O.5.21. options are on the right side and top of the page. Pindar’s metaphors of watering and vegetative growth are frequently associated with the immortalizing power of song. B.C. subject headings: triad; eponymous nymph; Kamarina; aretē ‘achievement, athletic struggles and prowess’; stephanos ‘garland’; kūdos habron ‘luxuriant glory of victory’; apostrophe; kerūssein; poetics of praise [; ainein]. The date of this victory is B.C. “Olympian Ode 1″ is one of the best known of the many victory poems of the ancient Greek lyric poet Pindar.It celebrates the victory of Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse, in the prestigious single horse race at the Olympic Games of 476 BCE. 5.20—and, in a parallel construction, addresses the Olympic victor himself (Ὀλυμπιόνικε), O. Only 7 left in stock - order soon. One of them is a short biography that was discovered in 1961 on an Egyptian papyrus dating from at least 200 AD (P.Oxy.2438).The other four are historic collections that weren't finalized until some 1600 years after Pindar's death: 1. 460 It has commonly been recognized as differing from Pindar's other metres, but many opinions have been held of its character. For Alcimedon of Aegina We're trying out a new look. B. C. Olympian 13 It was first founded by Syracuse in 598 BCE and subsequently destroyed by the Syracusans around 553 BCE. Having invoked in virtually the same breath the ruler of the gods and a mere human, however accomplished and worthy, Pindar checks himself and exhorts Psaumis in a gnomic third-person formulation to do the same. The first subject of the song of Psaumis, Athena’s sanctuary, starts off a series of local landmarks: the river Oanos and ‘the nearby lake’ (ἐγχωρίαν λίμναν), O.5.11, which according to scholia is Lake Kamarina, invoked in the opening triad in the form of the city’s eponymous nymph, as well as the sacred canals of the river Hipparis, which provide water for the community and serve as a means of transporting building materials necessary for Kamarina’s frequent rebuilding efforts, O.5.12–14. (1). Od. Not even all the sites in Kamarina would have necessarily been visible from the site of the original performance (river Oanos, for example, is some 6 miles away from the ancient city), and this would have been especially the case in subsequent re-performances where the listeners might have experienced the song elsewhere in Sicily, at Olympia, or any other location. subject heading: spatio-temporal “hinge”. Chariot Race In this case, the spatio-temporal shift from Olympia to Kamarina is facilitated by a less common epinician ‘hinge’ device: instead of the more usual relative pronouns or adverbs, we find here a participle-verb combination: ‘coming, as he comes’ (ἵκων), ‘he sings’ (ἀείδει), Ο.5.9, Ο.5.10. Chariot Race subject headings: dekhesthai ‘to receive, to welcome’[; kōmos ‘revel, reveling, band of revelers, occasion for reveling][; khoros ‘group of singers/dancers’][; aretē]. The reference to the cave of Ida has raised much speculation already in the antiquity. Basil L. Gildersleeve, Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes, 5; Basil L. Gildersleeve, Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes, 8; Basil L. Gildersleeve, Pindar: The Olympian and Pythian Odes, 9; Cross-references to this page (5): William Watson Goodwin, Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of … Pindar was one of the most famous ancient Greek lyric poets, and perhaps the best known of the canonical nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. The focus, instead, is on the victor himself and on his role in the resettlement of his hometown of Kamarina. Epic, Praise, and the Possession of Poetry 7. Diane Arnson Svarlien. B. C. Olympian 9 At different times Kamarina was associated with two neighboring “mother” cities—Syracuse and Gela—but also attempted numerous times to gain independence. 464 Pindar and Homer, Athlete and Hero 8. Another of Pindar's Olympian odes mentions "six double altars." (For a definition of metonymy, see the Inventory of terms and names.) This text was converted to electronic form by professional data entry and has been proofread to a high level of accuracy. 6.7.1–2). ft. single-family home is a 4 bed, 1.0 bath property. May 5, 2020 - Office of the US Trustee, Olympic Towers, 300 Pearl St. 4th Floor, Buffalo NY 14202 . The ‘reception motif’ is pervasive in Pindaric victory odes, either coupled explicitly with kōmos or, as in this case, used metonymically for the song being performed. This home was built in 1920 and last sold on 6/18/2018 for $53,900. O.5.17–18 It could be ‘he’ (Psaumis), continuing the construction from O.5.10—in parallel with ‘he sings’ (ἀείδει)—in order to emphasize Psaumis’ direct involvement in improving the navigation of the river Hipparis and facilitating the transport of building materials. Current location in this text. The concentric circles of epinician praise are thus encapsulated in the first triad, with the victor at the center, followed closely by the immediate family and by the implied ancestral line, extending in its widest reach to the whole homeland community of Kamarina. And so, Pindar is quick to clear any potential confusion; the final words of the ode resound powerfully: εἴ τιϲ ὄλβον ἄρδει, |24 ἐξαρκέων κτεάτεσσι καὶ εὐλογίαν προστιθείς, μὴ ματεύϲῃ θεὸϲ γενέϲθαι, ‘if someone fosters a healthy wealth, |24 having enough possessions and adding to them praise, let him not seek to become a god.’, O.5.23 ("Agamemnon", "Hom. 476 For Theron of Acragas O.5.17–18. O.5.1–24 "note on p. 17 ; Celebrating the victory of Psaumis of Camarina in the Olympic Games of 460 or 456 B. C. "The inner number, placed at the end of the several paragraphs, shows the corresponding line of the original. Or it could be ‘it’ (Hipparis), the subject of the more immediately preceding relative clause at O.5.12 and in parallel with ‘waters’ (ἄρδει)—understanding the river as metaphorically building an area of sturdy dwellings by enabling the builders to rapidly float down wood and other construction elements for the new houses. $28.00. This is the only victory ode in our MSS whose Pindaric authorship has been questioned. 5.21. B. C. Olympian 12 Olympians 4 and 5 celebrate victories of Psaumis of Camarina, a city on the south shore of Sicily between Acragas and Syracuse. B. C. Olympian 3 The double apostrophe thus combines distal deixis (to Zeus in Olympia) with proximal deixis (to Psaumis in Kamarina), bringing the man and the god closer together, especially in light of the request ‘to adorn this city with famous deeds of manliness’ (πόλιν εὐανορίαισι τάνδε κλυταῖς δαιδάλειν), O.5.20–21, an act of which both Zeus and Psaumis can be seen as agents on the divine and human level respectively. It is significant to note that the amplification of kūdos habron ‘the glory of victory’ is imagined as coming from the mouth of Psaumis himself, as he is envisioned in the act of kerūssein ‘making a public proclamation’ (ἐκάρυξε), O.5.8, of his father and his homeland. Pindar. ; Pindar's victory odes are grouped into four books named after the Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean Games–the four Panhellenic festivals held respectively at Olympia, Delphi, Corinth and Nemea. He himself was a periodoniēs (winner at all four major games), while three of his sons and two of his grandsons were Olympic victors. Hide browse bar For Hieron of Syracuse An additional movement to the Olympic landscape, during the competition at the hippodrome, may even be registered at O.5.3 in the reference to the ‘tirelessly-running mule cart’ (ἀκαμαντόποδός τ᾽ ἀπήνας) of Psaumis, interjected between the two invocations of Kamarina, O.5.2 and O.5.4. The triad closes with a gnomic sentiment about the importance of labor and expense in all human endeavors, which includes, of course, athletics, but also—one might assume—Kamarina’s arduous rebuilding. For Psaumis of Camarina Many other places had cults of the twelve gods, including Delos, Chalcedon, Magnesia on the Maeander, and Leontinoi in Sicily. Get the latest updates from the CHS regarding programs, fellowships, and more! Biography. Olympians 4 and 5 were written for a certain Psaumis son of Akron, a citizen of Kamarina in Sicily. See also the comment at O.5.10 for a reverse spatio-temporal shift from Olympia to Kamarina. This event would have been the most recent physical, demographic, and political rebuilding and reorganization of the city in only 150 years since its original foundation. Chariot Race Epic, Praise, and the Possession of Poetry 7. 476 Special offers and product promotions. The scholia are divided on the issue, with some reporting a cave of Ida near Olympia and others suggesting that the reference here is to the great cave of Ida in Crete. Boys' Foot Race Mule Car Race Psaumis achieved his accomplishments by furnishing entries in the races with chariots, mules, and single horses and, upon victory, conducting grand sacrifices of oxen on the altars of Olympia. 472 or 476 2438) was first published in 1961. Here, the enunciative ego entreats Zeus to honor Kamarina—‘this city (πόλιν τάνδε), O. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. MILTON AND HORACE narrates the war in heaven. This property was originally built in 1920. B. C. Olympian 5 Five ancient sources contain all the recorded details of Pindar's life. View a map of the most frequently mentioned places in this document. In the second triad Psaumis’ engagement with the local community and environs is further elaborated, as his return from Olympia is presented through a song about his hometown in the present. Pindar’s Life and Career. T he lyric poet Pindar has composed four groups of epinician (triumphal) hymns, addressed or referring to the winners of the four major Pan-Hellenic contests. The Olympian Odes of Pindar, like all of his epinician hymns, start with a preamble, usually containing an invocation to a deity or personified idea. Founded by Syracuse in 598 BCE and subsequently destroyed by the entry in P. Oxy cave, see the of! This home was built in 1920 and last sold on 6/18/2018 for $ 53,900 to gain independence Kronos and the! Ode—Olympian 4—composed for an earlier victory in a chariot victory in a parallel construction, addresses Olympic... A mule-cart race at Olympia in 448 BCE and Greek Edition ) Pindar, see comment. 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