endobj Because blast furnace slag contains fertilizer components CaO, SiO 2, and MgO, it is used in rice cultivation as calcium silicate fertilizer.In addition to these three components, steelmaking slag also contains components such as FeO, MnO, and P 2 O 5, and is used for a broad range of agricultural purposes, including dry field farming and pastures in addition to rice cultivation.Its alkaline property … fractions of the slag are used for improving soil quality in agriculture. <> x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Tp�W� Proctor, D. M., Shay, E. C., Fehling, K. A. and Finley, B. L., Assessment of human health and ecological risks posed by the uses of steel industry slags in the environment. Irrigation is one of the most used technology (Valipour, 2015b), and must point out that with the recent climate change producers will increase their irrigated areas and … NKK Monthly, December, 25 (2000), Oh, Ok, Soo, Oh, Sang, and Yoon. Steelmaking slag contains less silicic acid than blast furnace slag. Hou, G. H., Wang, Z. H., and Zhu, X., Difference of grindablity and cementions performance activity among minerals in steel slag. (Unpublished report). 24 0 obj endobj Click here to View table. However, there is sufficient data in the literature to suggest that it may be possible to effectively accommodate this material in cementitious systems, either as an aggregate or as a supplementary cementitious material. LD slag also contains phosphorous in the form of P2O5. 48 0 obj Slag generated from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) or Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter is one of the recyclable wastes in integrated steel plants. endstream 32 0 obj endstream The use and environmental assessment of LD slag is more recent (Proctor et al., 2002; Gahan et al., 2009; Yilmaz et al., 2010). stream On the other hand, steel slag can be used as construction material, pavement material and engineering material. Table 1: Chemical composition of LD slag (%) The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute, Wooster, OH. 46 0 obj Growers are increasingly looking to coproduct liming materials like steel slag. 34 0 obj endstream In addition natural lime stone fertilisers are in competition to the slag use. The main uses of Slag are in construction, water treatment, agriculture, cementitious applications. � ��� As a coproduct of an industrial process, steel slag offers considerable cost advantages over commercial limestone. 18 0 obj Steel slags are produced at steel melting shop during steel manufacturing. The rates of liming required are high and the use of limestone may not be economically feasible (Munn, 1998). The major phases present in LD slag in other parts of world are also studied, that contain some reactive mineral phase such as 2CaO.SiO2, 3CaO.SiO2, free CaO and MgO (Goldring and Jukes, 1997). /Contents 28 0 R>> Slags from the iron and steel industry may be used in agriculture to correct soil acidity. <> India: The Ministry of Steel has asked that the Ministry of Agriculture examine using slag from steel and iron production as a fertilizer. 22 0 obj <> Hiltunen, R., and Hiltunen, A., Environmental aspects of the utilization of steel industry slags, Proceedings of VII Intenational Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts. The authors are thankful to Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India for their valuable support and encouragement in the successful accomplishment of this paper. Slag-based silicate fertilizer has been widely used to improve soil silicon- availability and crop productivity. endstream endobj 45 0 obj Steel LD slag can also be used in fertilizers for agricultural applications (Das et al., 2007). 36 0 obj The product has been certified by the Union Ministry of Agriculture and the Fertilizer Association of India. Hence, many studies have been particularly focused on the behavior and immobilization in soil of the main heavy metals contained in steel converter slag in order to achieve a more effective and sustainable use of steel slags in agriculture and thus improves its recycling. This process leads to a glassy, granular product that is then dried and ground into a fine powder. Shen, D. H., Wu, C. M., and Du, J. C., Laboratory investigation of basic oxygen furnace slag for substitution of aggregate in porous asphalt mixture. x�3R��2�35W(�*T0P�R0T(�Y@���@QC= P A�J��� �1Up�W� The phosphorus content in LD slag is too high to be reused in iron making and one-hundredth  percent of phosphorus go to the metal phase. endobj 31 0 obj stream Germination was successful in all treatments with limestone and slag. <> <> Steel slag is residue from the steelmaking process, made of minerals like silica, alumina and titanium from iron sand, and combinations of calcium and magnesium oxides. The most common process is quenching with water, but air or a combination of air and water may be used. endstream endstream Uses in agriculture – Steelmaking slag has fertilizer components CaO, SiO2, and MgO. With the rapid growth of industrialization, the available land for dispose of large quantities of metallurgical slag like LD slag at a landfill site is reducing the disposal cost becomes increasingly higher in all over the world respectively. It has been studied that, three steel slags were as effective as limestone in neutralizing an eastern Ohio coal mine spoil. 3 0 obj Yi, Huang., Xu, Guoping., Cheng, Huigao., Wang, Junshi., Wan, Yinfeng., and Chen, Hui., An overview of utilization of steel slag. The chemical characterisation of LD slags was determined by ICP-AES and C-H-N-S analyser. LD steel slag as fertilizer in agriculture. The reuse and recycle of the steel slag is closely related to its chemical and physical characteristics. Many field trials and experiments have shown significant improvement in crop yield and pasture quality. Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts., Stockholm, Sweden-Helsinki, Finland, 12–17 June, CD Rom-paper 210 (2000), Shakhpazov, E. H., and Svyazhin, A. G. Slag recycling in ferrous metallurgy. endobj /Contents 10 0 R>> Chand S, Paul B, Kumar M. An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in Agriculture. Both forms are stable in the environment. /Contents 26 0 R>> <> endobj Powders of steel slag are also patented for treating wastewater, whereby environmental contamination due to the slags can be prevented and the cost for treating wastewater can be reduced (Oh et al., 2000). The iron and steel slag used as aggregates for asphalt roads are iron and steel by-products. <> Patent number WO0185618, Patent application data: Number KR0000701. endobj endobj The steel slag contains higher amount of iron and its physical Kourounis, S., Tsivilis, S., Tsakiridis, P.E. � ��� Following processing and metal recovery, the nonmetallic products from the furnace, raker and ladle slags are used for different applications including as construction aggregate, in agriculture or reclamation of acidic lands (www.nationalslag.org). In Europe, USA, Japan, China, Korea, and Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. Curr World Environ 2015;10(3) DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CWE.10.3.29, Chand S, Paul B, Kumar M. An Overview of Use of Linz-Donawitz (LD) Steel Slag in Agriculture. Iron blast-furnace slag should not be confused with steel-furnace slag or other types of slag. The most common use is as an aggregate in the manufacture of asphalt. The main mineral phases contained in steel slag are dicalcium silicate (C2S), tricalcium silicate (C3S), RO phase (CaO-FeO-MnO-MgO solid solution), tetra-calcium aluminoferrite (C4AF), olivine, merwinite and free-CaO (Kourounis et al., 2007; Goldring et al., 1997). /Contents 6 0 R>> 109 JULY 2015-132-respect to steelmaking slag, about 100 000 tons are used annually as a raw material for slag silicate fertilizer, byproduct lime fertilizer, slag phosphate fertilizer, and special fertilizers. Tata Steel IBMD is one of the leading suppliers of GGBS and the product has been used in construction of many iconic structures in India. endstream In all steel integrated are using the basic oxygen … 25 0 obj Many studies have been done for production of fertilizes from LD slag, semi-calcined dolomite and ammonium sulfate and their agricultural applications for agro-forestry, pasture farming. <> In Europe, USA, Japan, China, Korea, and Hawai steel slag has been utilized in agriculture as a liming material for improving acid soil or as Si source for paddy rice and sugar cane plants. Steel slag also has been used as amendment for metal contaminated soils (Mench et al., 1994a). Cultivators have deferred use of limestone to cover the rising costs of fertilizer, even at the risk of lower yields. endobj In: 7th International Conference on Waste Management and Technology. <> � ��� endobj The materials are used to maximise yields of cultivated crops and pasture, improve soil texture and neutralize high soil acidity. Steel plant slag is a solid industrial waste generated from steel industries in production of steel and mainly these wastes includes blast furnace and steel melting slag (open hearth or LD process slag). It can be directly taken in to sintering, ironmaking and steelmaking as used as flux, from which the useful elements can be recovered (Shakhpazov and Svyazhin, 1997). It can be categorized as carbon steel slag and stainless steel slag according to the type of steel, and as pretreatment slag, Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter slag, electrical arc furnace slag (EAFS), ladle refining slag and casting residue according to the steelmaking process (Meng and Liu, 2000). Steel slag has been used as a soil additive for more than 100 years because of its high lime content, but it also contains more than a dozen other important minerals and has been shown to improve yields in corn and soybeans. 49 0 obj <> The LD slag mainly consists of SiO2, CaO, Fe2O3, FeO, Al2O3, MgO, MnO, P2O5 (Motz et al., 2001). Tata Steel IBMD is one of the leading suppliers of GGBS and the product has been used in construction of many iconic structures in India. endobj In order to produce dense aggregates suitable for road and waterway construction and concrete structures, it is necessary to avoid free lime and magnesia formation in the slag. endobj Over liming can result in lowered plant availability of macronutrients like P and micronutrients like Fe, Cu and Zn. <> /Contents 14 0 R>> Since their use as landfill material has almost reached its limit, the pressure for saving natural resources and energy has led steel industry along with other important technological challenges, to improve and increase the recycling of this by-product. Und die Steinwolleerzeugung verwendet to 10 tons/acre of slag, such as chromates CrO42-or dichromates Cr2O72- used treat... Costs of fertilizer, even at the risk of lower yields steel manufacturers current... 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Regularly to regulate the need develop new slag to applications reduce fungal.! Slag in agriculture as fertilizer introduced the open-hearth method of steelmaking and is used for landfilling to. Positive technical characteristics, LD slag is principally a lime based material that has seen minimal,... And ground into a separate vessel which has not been exploited till now hydraulic property provides...